The Business of Choice: Footnotes and References

Like most books that lean heavily on scientific research, this book has many footnotes to material that has informed the text. Sometimes they are part of the story, other times they are references to research. To make it easier for readers to refer to the source material we have compiled the footnotes that use external references (be that scientific papers or articles) and provided a live link to the original reference. However, the internet is a living thing, and while we have tested all the links, we can’t guarantee that they will all remain live.


3  Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. (1994) “Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala.” Nature 372: 669–672. 
 PDF available here:

4  Adolphs, R., Gosselin, F., Buchanan, T.W., Tranel, D., Schyns, P., Damasio, A. (2005) “A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage.”Nature 433: 68–72. 
 Abstract available here:

5  The exact number of experiments that do not replicate is unknown, in large part because it requires publishing a null result. There is a journal dedicated to null results, though: the Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis. (

6  Simonsohn’s investigations have led to two scientists resigning from their posts and to a number of papers being retracted. An article by Christopher Shea in the December 2012 edition of The Atlantic covers Simonsohn’s efforts in more detail. 
 Article available here:

8  “Left Brain vs. Right: It’s a Myth, Research Finds” by Christopher Wanjek, Septem- ber 3, 2013.

10  “Unilever Logic. Keith Weed wants Unilever to be the trust mark of sustainable living.” Hub Magazine, March/April 2013. 
 Article available here:

13  Yes, this Society of Judgment and Decision Making really does exist and holds an excellent conference every year in North America. 
 The society’s website can be founds at

15  Shu, L., Mazar, N., Gino, F., Ariely, D., Bazerman, M. (2012) “Signing at the Beginning Makes Ethics Salient and Decreases Dishonest Self-reports in Comparison to Signing at the End.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September, 109(38): 15197–15200. 
 PDF available here:

16  Before any readers get on my case for using the word “soccer,” in Ireland (where I grew up), the beautiful game has been historically known as soccer in order to distinguish it from Gaelic Football. A map can be found at that shows how football/soccer is named around the world. “Soccer” is not just an American thing…


1  You can find the full infographic with very insightful thoughts on the different categories at supergraphic-2014/

3  BrandAsset Valuator is a formidable study, covering 50,000 brands and 51 coun- tries since its initiation by Young & Rubicam in the 1990s. 
 You can read all about it at


6  Katy Waldman, June 28, 2014. happier_or_sadder_to_manipulate.html

7  Indecision Blog; March 2013. matthew-willcox-draftfcb/. In a subsequent interview on the Indecision Blog, Ogilvy & Mather’s Rory Sutherland, one of the leaders in bringing behavioral science into marketing practice, took this one step further when he said, “I truly believe that ‘The Next Big Thing’ is not a technology at all. Most progress in the developed world in this coming century—economic, social, hedonic—could in fact come from improvements in the social sciences. This is bigger than the Internet.”

12 This has already happened to some extent. The 1906 Kellogg ad that I mention in the next chapter used the principle of scarcity, but suggested an artificial shortage, which is now considered illegal in a number of countries. Also, there is an active debate about the uses of nudges, their legality, and to what extent they should be used and disclosed in public policy. See “Nudging legally: On the checks and balances of behavioral regulation,” by Alberto Alemanno and Alessandro Spina, International Journal of Constitutional Law (2014). Full article available here:


3  Maguire, E.A., Gadian, D.G., Johnsrude, I.S., Good, C.D., Ashburner, J., Frack- owiak, R.S.J., Frith, C.D. (2000) “Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers.” PNAS April. 
 PDF available here:

4  Pravosudov V.V., Kitaysky, A.S., and Omanska A. (2006) “The relationship between migratory behaviour, memory and the hippocampus: an intraspecific comparison.” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1601): 2641–2649. 
 PDF available here:

5  Green, C.S., Bavelier, D. (2007) “Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision.” Psychol Sci 18: 88–94. 
 PDF available here:

6  Wu, S., Cheng, C.K., Feng, J., D’Angelo, L., Alain, C., Spence, I. (2012) “Playing a first-person shooter video game induces neuroplastic change.” J Cogn Neurosci24: 1286–93. 
 Abstract available here:

7 Gindrat, A-D, Chytiris, M, Balerna, M, Rouiller, E.M., Ghosh, A. (2014) “Use- Dependent Cortical Processing from Fingertips in Touchscreen Phone Users.”Current Biology Dec. Abstract available here:


3  “10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design” were developed by Jakob Nielsen and Rolf Molich in the 1990s. Nielsen (often called “the guru of web page usability”) describes them as follows: “The 10 most general principles for interaction design…they are called ‘heuristics’ because they are more in the nature of rules of thumb than specific usability guidelines.” 
 Nielsen’s own summary can be found here:

4  McBeath, M.K., Shaffer, D.M., Kaiser, M.K. (1995) “How baseball outfielders deter- mine where to run to catch fly balls.” Science, April, 268 (5210): 569–573. 
 A PDF can be found here:

7 Beggs, Jodi N. “Homer Economicus or Homer Sapiens? Behavioral Economics in The Simpsons.” Economists Do It With Models website, May 2011.


1  Zajonc, Robert B. (1968) “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure.” Journal of Per- sonality and Social Psychology 9: 1–27. 
 Abstract free, full paper can be purchased here:

2  Monahan, J.L., Murphy, S.T., and Zajonc, R.B. (2000) “Subliminal mere exposure: specific, general, and diffuse effects.” Psychological Science 11: 462–466. 
 Abstract here:

3  Tversky, A, and Kahneman, D. (1974) “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185: 1124–1131. 
An abstract is viewable here . Subscribers to Science Magazine can download the full paper.

4  Goldstein, D.G., and Gigerenzer, G. (2002) “Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic.” Psychological Review 109: 75–90. 
 A PDF is available here

5  See Leigh Caldwell’s piece here: and-gigerenzer-golf/; also see Tim Adam’s piece “Nudge economics: has push come to shove for a fashionable theory?” in The Guardian, 31 May, 2014.

6 Serwe, S. and Frings, C. (2006) “Who will win Wimbledon? The recognition heuristic in predicting sports events.” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19: 321–332. Abstract and link to rent or buy paper here

8  “Of Free Will and Suggestion Boxes” by John George Byrne,

9 “Stendhal syndrome, hyperkulturemia, or Florence syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, fainting, confusion, and even hal- lucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particu- larly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place.” (Wikipedia). These symptoms were frequently reported by tourists visiting Florence in the mid-19th century, but today there is some skepticism as to whether this phenomenon really exists.

10 Shapiro, S.A,. Nielsen, J.H. (2013) “What the Blind Eye Sees: Incidental Change Detection as a Source of Perceptual Fluency.” Journal of Consumer Research39: 1202–1218. Free preview and link to paid download available here

11  Kakade, S., Dayan, P. (2002) “Dopamine: generalization and bonuses.” Neural Networks 15: 549–559. 
Link to download here

12  Herrnstein, R.J. (1974) “Formal Properties of the Matching Law.” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21: 159–164. 
 Full PDF available here

13  Matching Law is evident in shot selection amongst basketball players. Vollmer, T R, and Bourret J. (2000). “An Application of the Matching Law to Evaluate the Allocation of Two- and Three-Point Shots by College Basketball Players.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 33.2: 137–150. 
 Full PDF available here

15  A great summary of How Brands Grow appears at how-brands-grow-speed-summary/, but you should still buy the book! It’s a good, provocative read.

17  Kahn, B. E., Wansink B. (2004), “The Influence of Assortment Structure on Perceived Variety and Consumption Quantities,” Journal of Consumer Research, March, 30(4): 519–533. 
 Full PDF available here

18  You can find a good description of the campaign and how it was put together at


2  You can see a video that shows overall engagement measured via EEG and hot spots that show where viewers were looking measured via eye tracking here:

3  Small, D.A., Verrochi, N.M. (2009) “The Face of Need: Facial Emotion Expression on Charity Advertisements.” Journal of Marketing Research December. 
 Full text available here

4  Kanwisher, N. (2010) “Functional specificity in the human brain: A window
into the functional architecture of the mind.” Proc Natl Acad Sci 107(25): 11163– 11170. 
 Full PDF available here

5  Ito, T.A., Thompson, E., Cacioppo, J.T. (2004). “Tracking the timecourse of Social Perception: The Effects of Racial Cues on Event-Related Brain Potentials.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(10): 1267–1280. 
 Full PDF available here

6  Whalen lab research summary: angry.html

8 Matsumoto, D., Willingham, B. (2008) “Spontaneous Facial Expressions of Emotion of Congenitally and Noncongenitally Blind Individuals” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(1). Free preview and link to paid download available here

10  Schultz, P.W., Nolan, J.M., Cialdini, R.B., Goldstein, N.J., Griskevicius, V. (2007) “The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms.”Psychological Science 18: 429. 
 Full PDF available here

11  Ferraro, P.J., Price, M.K. (2013) “Using nonpecuniary strategies to influence behavior: evidence from a large-scale field experiment.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 95: 64–73. 
 Full PDF available here

12  Howard, B.C. “Hotels Save Energy with a Push to Save Water.” National Geo- graphic Magazine, December 24, 2014. Article here

15  DuRant, R.H., Wolfson, M., LaFrance, B., Balkrishnan, R., Altman, D. (2006) “An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.” Journal of Adolescent Health 38: 298.e1-298.e9. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

16 Cialdini, R.B. (2003) “Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12: 105–109. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

17  Sanfey, A.G., Rilling, J.K., Aronson, J.A., Nystrom, L.E., Cohen, J.D. (2003) “The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game.” Science 300: 1755–1758. 
 Abstract available here. Full text requires subscription.

18  Corradi-Dell’Acqua, C., Civai, C., Rumiati, R.I., Fink, G.R. (2013) “Disentangling self- and fairness-related neural mechanisms involved in the ultimatum game: an fMRI study.” SCAN 8: 424–431. 
Full text available free here

19  “‘Bank Transfer Day,’ What Really Just Happened?” Javelin Strategy and Research Blog, January 26, 2012.‘bank-transfer-day’-what-really-just-happened/

20 The full report can be downloaded here: Insights_to_Organ_Donation.pdf.

21 Wright, O. “How organ donation is getting nudge in the right direction: trial could pave way for 100,000 extra donors each year,” The Independent,December 24, 2013.


1 Trinkaus, E. (2005) “Anatomical evidence for the antiquity of human footwear use.” Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 1515–1526. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

2  Brodie, D.A., Murdock, B.B. (1977) “Effect of presentation time on nominal and functional serial-position curves of free recall.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16: 185–200. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

3  Crano, W.D. (1977) “Primacy versus recency in retention of information and opinion change.” The Journal of Social Psychology 101: 87–96. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

4 Redelmeier, D.A., Katz, J., Kahneman, D. (2003) “Memories of colonoscopy: a randomized trial.” Pain 104(1-2): 187–94. Abstract available here The full text can be found online, but I am not sure of copyright status.

5 Kivetz, Y., Tyler, T.R. (2007) “Tomorrow I’ll be me: The effect of time perspective on the activation of idealistic versus pragmatic selves.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 102(2): 193–211. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

6  Hershfield, H.E., Wimmer, G.E., Knutson, B. (2009) “Saving for the future self: neural measures of future self-continuity predict temporal discounting.” SCAN 4: 85–92. 
 Full PDF available free here

7  Hershfield, H.E., Goldstein, D.G., Sharpe, W.F., Fox, J., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2011) “Increasing saving behavior through age-progressed renderings of the future self.” J Marketing Res 48: S23–S37. 
 Full paper available free here

8  Newman, A.A. “Poignant Endorsements in Weight-Loss Campaign.” New York Times, December 19, 2012.


3 May, J. “As seen on TV: Who needs rain-sensing wipers?” Daily Telegraph, March 2005.

4  Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J.L., Thaler, R.H. (1991) “Anomalies: The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias.” The Journal of Economic Perspec- tives, 5(1): 193–206, Winter. 
 Paper available free here

5  Carmon, Z., Ariely, D. (2000) “Focusing on the forgone: how value can appear so different to buyers and sellers.” Journal of Consumer Research 27: 360–370. 
 Paper available free here

6  Risen, J.L., Gilovich, T. (2007) “Another Look at Why People Are Reluctant to Exchange Lottery Tickets.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Cornell University 93(1): 12–22. 
 Full PDF available here

9  Peck, J., Shu, S.B. (2009) “The Effect of Mere Touch on Perceived Ownership.” Journal of Consumer Research 36(3). 
Full PDF available free here

10  Hadi, R., Valenzuela, A. (2014) “A Meaningful Embrace: Contingent Effects of Embodied Cues of Affection.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 24(4): 520–532. Full paper available free here

11  Brasel, S.A., Gips, J. (2014) “Tablets, touchscreens, and touchpads: How varying 
touch interfaces trigger psychological ownership and endowment.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 24: 226–233. 
 Full paper available free here

12 Gourville, J. “The Curse of Innovation: A Theory of Why Innovative New Products Fail in the Marketplace.” Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 06-014, September 2005. Full PDF available free here

13 Nawijn, J., Marchand, M.A., Veenhoven, R., Vingerhoets, A.J. (2010) “Vacationers Happier, but Most not Happier After a Holiday.” Applied Research in Quality of Life 5(1): 35–47. 
 Full paper available free here

14 Parker-Pope, T. “How Vacations Affect Your Happiness” New York Times February 18, 2010.


1  Fogg, B.J., Nass, C. (1997) “Silicon sycophants: the effects of computers that flatter.” International Journal of Human Computer Studies 46(5): 551–561. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

2  Chan, E., Sengupta, J. (2010) “Insincere Flattery Actually Works: A Dual Attitudes Perspective.” Journal of Marketing Research 47: 122–133. 
 Full PDF available free here

3 “Of the Bold and the Beautiful: How Feeling Beautiful Leads to More Extreme Choices” Margaret Gorlin, Yale School of Management; Zixi Jiang, Guanghua School of Management; Jing Xu, Guanghua School of Management; Ravi Dhar, Yale School of Management. Full PDF available free here

5  Krueger, N., Dickson, P. (1994) “How Believing in Ourselves Increases Risk Taking: Perceived Self-Efficacy and Opportunity Recognition” Decision Sciences25(3): 385–400. 
 Abstract and link to purchase or rent full text here

6  Bandura, A. (1993) “Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Func- tioning” Educational Psychologist 28(2): 117–148. 
 Links to various Bandura work here

9  Including Bastardi, A., Shafir, E. (1998) “On the pursuit and misuse of useless information.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(1): 19–32. 
 Full PDF available free here

10  Faro, D., Heller, M., Irmak, C. (2011) “Merely Accessible: Products May Be Effective Without Actual Consumption,” in NA – Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 38, eds. Dahl, D.W., Johar, G.V., van Osselaer, S.M.J. Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research. 
 Abstract available here

11  Anthony, C.I., Cowley, E. (2012) “The Labor of Lies: How Lying for Material Rewards Polarizes Consumers’ Outcome Satisfaction.” Journal of Consumer Research 39(3): 478–492. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

13 Equally, giving people more than makes sense can have a catastrophic effect financially and in terms of brand equity. Upon reading this chapter, a colleague reminded me of the Hoover free flights promotion disaster of 1992. Faced with a huge inventory surplus, Hoover’s UK division offered free flights to purchasers who bought more than £100 worth of products. The response for the promotion overwhelmed Hoover, and it ended up costing them £48 million, with court cases continuing for 6 years. You can read the BBC story about “one of the greatest marketing disasters of all time” here:


1 A study shows when soccer goalkeepers face a penalty, they are likely to pick a side before the ball is kicked and dive left or right as an extravagant display of effort, even though the probability distribution of kick direction means their
best strategy would be to stay in the center of the goal. Bar-Eli, M., Azar, O.H., Ritov, I., Keidar-Levin, Y., Schein, G. (2005) “Action bias among elite soccer goalkeepers: The case of penalty kicks.” Journal of Economic Psychology 28(2007): 606–621. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

2 A study of organ donation consent rates across 11 European countries by Dan Goldstein and Eric Johnson was published in Nature in 2003. An analysis of the data showed that rates varied from 4.25% for Denmark to 99.91% for France. Spoiler alert: The title of the study is Do Defaults Save Lives? Full PDF available free here

5  Chandisarewa, W., Stranix-Chibanda, L., Chirapa, E., Miller, A., Simoyi, M., Mahomva, A., et al. (2007) “Routine offer of antenatal HIV testing (‘opt-out’ approach) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in urban Zimbabwe.” Bull World Health Organ 85(11): 843-50. 
 Full paper available free here

6  According to the Improbable Research website, the “Ig Nobel” prize is awarded to people whose work might first make people laugh but then makes them think. The awards “celebrate the unusual, honor the imaginative—and spur people’s interest in science, medicine, and technology.”

8  Rozin, P., Scott, S., Dingley, M., Urbanek, J.K., Jiang, H., Kaltenbach, M. (2011) “Nudge to nobesity: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake.”Judgment and Decision Making 6(4): 323–332. 
 Full paper available free here

10  Leventhal, H., Singer, R., Jones, S. (1965) “Effects of fear and specificity of recommendation upon attitudes and behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2(1): 20-29 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

12  Magen, E., Kim, B., Dweck, C., Gross, J.J., McClure, S.M. (2014) “Behavioral and neural correlates of increased self-control in the absence of increased willpower.” Proc Natl Acad Sci 111: 9786–9791. Full paper available free here

13  Bennett, D. “Easy = True—How ‘cognitive fluency’ shapes what we believe, how we invest, and who will become a supermodel.” Boston Globe, January 31, 2010. 
 Article here

14 Bird, S. “Marketing Made Easy.” NZ Marketing magazine, November/December 2014.

18 Charlie Brooker’s Screen Burn, The Guardian, December 4, 2009

19 Pocheptsova, A., Labroo, A.A., Dhar, R. (2010) “Making Products Feel Special: When Metacognitive Difficulty Enhances Evaluation.” Journal of Marketing Research 47(6): 1059–1069. Full paper available free here


1 DePillis, L. “A Bite from the Apple Store. What JCPenney’s Failed Imitation Says About Retail—and Identity.” New Republic, March 4, 2014. Article here

2 link to Willcox post on JCP

4  Ariely, D., Loewenstein, G., Prelec, D. (2003) “Coherent Arbitrariness: Stable Demand Curves Without Stable Preferences.” Quarterly Journal of Economics118(1): 73–106. 
 Full paper available free here

5 Some examples are Dan Ariely’s Economist experiment, covered in “The importance of irrelevant alternatives,” The Economist, May 22, 2009 and Amos Tversky and Itamar Simonson’s Minolta camera experiment (“Context- Dependent Preferences,” Management Science, October 1993 – full paper free here ).

6 Mussweiler, T., Strack, F. (2000) “The use of category and exemplar knowledge in the solution of anchoring tasks.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, June 78(6): 1038–1052.  Abstract and link to purchase full text here

7  Zimmer, B. “Cadillac Thrives as a Figure of Speech.” New York Times, November 5, 2009. 
 Article here

11  Alexander, R. “Dos Equis most—interesting?” Brandchannel, March 31, 2010. 
 article here

12  Link to post on autoblog here

13  “6 alternatives to the Mini Cooper—The Mini’s great, but these days there are lots of cars that can give you coolness with a small size and price.” CNN Money, July 2010. 
 Link to piece here


2 Griskevicius, V., Goldstein, N.J., Mortensen, C.R., Sundie, J.M., Cialdini, R.B., Kenrick, D.T. (2009) “Fear and Loving in Las Vegas: Evolution, Emotion, and Persuasion.” Journal of Marketing Research 48: 384–395. Full PDF available free here

5  These are also covered in a number of papers, for example: Neuberg, S.L., Kenrick, D.T., Schaller, M. (2011) “Human Threat Management Systems: Self- Protection and Disease Avoidance.” Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 35(4): 1042-1051. 
 Full PDF available free here

7 Smith, C.T., Sierra, Y., Oppler, S.H., Boettiger, C.A. (2014) “Ovarian cycle effects on immediate reward selection bias in humans: a role for estradiol.” J Neurosci34: 5468–5476. Full paper available free here

8  Neuville, E., Croizet, J-C. (2007) “Can salience of gender identity impair math performance among 7–8 years old girls? The moderating role of task difficulty.”European Journal of Psychology of Education 22(3): 307–316. 
 Preview available here

9  Spencer, S.J., Steele, C.M., Quinn, D.M. (1999) “Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, January 35(1): 4–28. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

10 confirm-it-women-are-better-multi-taskers-than-men takes you to a link to a Nokia press release about this research

11  Pelham, B.W., Mirenberg, M.C., Jones, J.T. (2002) “Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: Implicit egotism and major life decisions” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82(4): 469–487. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

12  Simonsohn, U. (2010) “Spurious? Name Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) in Marriage, Job and Moving Decisions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101: 1–24.

13  “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination” by Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan and published by the National of Economic Research found that a resume with a white-sounding name had a 1 in 10 chance of getting a callback, but for an identical resume with a black-sounding name that number dropped to 1 in 15.

14  Chandler, J., Griffin, T.M., Sorensen, N. “In the “I” of the storm: Shared initials increase disaster donations,” Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.

16 Cialdini, R.B., Finch, J.F. “Another Indirect Tactic of (Self-) Image Management,” Arizona State University.

17  Levav, J., Zhu, R. (2009) “Seeking Freedom through Variety.” Journal of Consumer Research 36(4): 600–610.

18  North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J., McKendrick, J. (1999) “The influence of in-store music on wine selections.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84(2): 271–276.

19 Darley, J.M., Batson, C.D. (1973) “From Jerusalem to Jericho: A study of Situational and Dispositional Variables in Helping Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27(1): 100–108.


1 Research amongst a sample of 660 Germans across a range of age and socioeconomic groups showed older participants were more loss averse, and more educated participants were less loss averse. Gaechter, S., Johnson, E. J., Herrmann, A, (July 2007) “Individual-Level Loss Aversion in Riskless and Risky Choices.”IZA Discussion Paper No. 2961.

4 De Neve, J.-E., Mikhaylov, S., Dawes, C.T., Christakis, N.A., Fowler, J.H. (2003) “Born to lead? A twin design and genetic association study of leadership role occupancy.” The Leadership Quarterly 24 (1): 45.

5  Simonson, I., Sela, A. (2011) “On the Heritability of Consumer Decision Making: An Exploratory Approach for Studying Genetic Effects on Judgment and Choice.” Journal of Consumer Research, April, 37(6): 951–966.

6  Although it may be decades before we get an extensive picture on genetic differences affecting choice, it is something researchers are tackling already.
A study I reference later in the book (“Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias” Doll, Hutchison, and Frank, Journal of Neuroscience 2011) suggests that people with a polymorphism of a certain gene are more affected by the confirmation bias.

7  Willems, R.M., Van der Haegen, L., Fisher, S.E., Francks, C. (2014) “On the other hand: including left-handers in cognitive neuroscience and neurogenetics.”Nature Reviews Neuroscience February, 15: 193–201.

8  Elder, R.S., Krishna, A. (2012) “The ‘Visual Depiction Effect’ in Advertising: Facilitating Embodied Mental Simulation through Product Orientation.” Journal of Consumer Research April, 38(6): 988–1003.

9 Chen, K.M. (2013) “The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Evidence from Savings Rates, Health Behaviors, and Retirement Assets.” American Economic Review 103(2): 690–731.

10  The work of Geert Hofstede and his Cultural Dimensions Theory is a widely used resource. The Hofstede Centre provides courses and tools based on Geert Hofstede’s research. One interesting tool lets you compare the cultures of 102 countries across six key dimensions: power distance, individualism, masculinity (meaning a culture driven more by competition than cooperation), uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence (which in this context means a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun). The tool can be found at

11  Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., Bowdle, B.F., Schwarz, N. (1996) “Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: An ‘experimental ethnography.’” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology May, 70(5): 945–960.

12  Parameswaran, A. For God’s Sake: An Adman on the Business of Religion. Penguin, 2014.

13  Mokhlis, S. (2009) “Relevancy and Measurement of Religiosity in Consumer Behavior Research.” International Business Research 2(3): 75–84.

14  Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J.M., Delton, A.W., Robertson, T.E. (2014) “The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Risk and Delayed Rewards: A Life History Theory Approach.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology December, 100(6): 1015–1026.

15  World Bank, World Development Indicators: Reproductive Health http://wdi.

17  Rink, D.R. (2010) “The impact of birth order upon consumers’ decision-making, buying, and post-purchase processes: a conceptualization.” Innovative Marketing 6(4): 71–79.

18  Sulloway, F.J., Zweigenhaft, R.L. (2010) “Birth Order and Risk Taking in Athletics: A Meta-Analysis and Study of Major League Baseball,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14(4): 402–416.

19  Alter, A.L., Hershfield, H.E. (2014) “People search for meaning when they approach a new decade in chronological age.” PNAS, October, 111(48): 17066–17070.


3  “A New Model of Consumer Engagement,” Georgetown Institute for Consumer Research and the FCB Institute of Decision Making; Matthew Willcox, Christopher Hydock, Kurt Carlson, Ishani Banerji; GICR Research Brief, October 2014.

4 Doll, B.B., Hutchison, K.E., Frank, M.J. (2011) “Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias.” Journal of Neuroscience 31(16): 6188-6198. Full paper available free here

6 Muthukrishnan, M.V., Wathieu, L. (2007) “Superfluous Choices and the Persistence of Preference.” Journal of Consumer Research 33: 454–460. Full PDF available free here


2 Like Brian Wansink and his bottomless soup bowl in 2007, Chabris and co-author Dan Simons were recipients for an Ig Nobel prize for psychology in 2004.

3 Caldwell, L., Halonen, E. “Escaping the Chains: How Our Unconscious Limits and Frees Us…And How to Measure It in Market Research,” upcoming, Research World 2015. Available to subscribers of WARC here

4 Wilson, T., Lisle, D., Schooler, J., Hodges, S.D., Klaaren, K.J., LaFleur, S.J. (1993) “Introspecting about Reasons can Reduce Post-Choice Satisfaction.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19: 331-339. Abstract available here

5 Weijzen, P.L., de Graaf, C., Dijksterhuis, G.B. (2008) “Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior40(5):311–316. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

6 LaBar, K.S., Gitelman, D.R., Parrish, T.B., Kim, Y.-H., Nobre, A.C., Mesulam, M.M. (2001) “Hunger selectively modulates corticolimbic activation to food stimuli in humans.” Behavioral Neuroscience 115: 493–500. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

7  Azar, B. “IAT: Fad or fabulous? Psychologists debate whether the Implicit Association Test needs more solid psychometric footing before it enters the public sphere,” Monitor on Psychology (APA) July/August 2008. 
 Feature on here

9  Kodra, E., Senechal, T., McDuff, D., el Kaliouby, R. “From Dials to Facial Coding: Automated Detection of Spontaneous Facial Expressions for Media Research.” 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

10  Littlewort, G., Whitehill, J., Wu, T., Fasel, I., Frank, M., Movellan, J., Bartlett, M. “The computer expression recognition toolbox (CERT),” 2011 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition and Workshops (FG 2011), 298(305): 21-25. (March 2011). 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

11  Gilzenrat M.S., Nieuwenhuis, S., Jepma, M., Cohen, J.D. (2010) “Pupil diameter tracks changes in control state predicted by the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus function.” Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 10: 252–269. 
 Full PDF available free here

12  Towal, R.B., Mormann, M., Koch, C. (2013) “Simultaneous modeling of visual saliency and value computation improves predictions of economic choice.”Proc Natl Acad Sci 110: E3858-E3867. 
 Full PDF available free here

13 Ken Strutin, “Neurolaw and Criminal Justice,” December 2008. Article here

14 Plassmann, H., O’Doherty, J., Shiv, B., Rangel, A. (2008) “Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.” PNAS 105(3): 1050-1054. Full PDF available free here

15  McClure, S.M., Li, J., Tomlin, D., Cypert, K.S., Montague, L.M., Montague, P.R. (2004) “Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.” Neuron 44: 379–387. 
 Full paper available free here

16  Falk, E.B., Berkman, E.T., Lieberman, M.D. (2012) “From neural responses to population behavior: neural focus group predicts population-level media effects.” Psychol Sci 23: 439-445. 
 Abstract and link to purchase full text here

17 Sands Research calls its index the “neural engagement score” (NES); it has used the NES to assess many commercials.


1 Jonathan Renshon, in an interview with Harvard Magazine, June 2007 about his book Why Leaders Choose War: The Psychology of Prevention. Kahneman and Renshon paper available here

2  Lieutenant Colonel Michael J. Janser, “Cognitive Biases in Military Decision Making,” U.S. Army War College, 2007. 
 Full PDF available free here

3  Major Blair S. Williams, “Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making,” U.S. Army, Military Review, September–October 2010. 
 Full PDF available free here

4  FCB Auckland’s work for the National Depression Initiative has received global attention among mental health professionals and won the gold award for international campaigns in one of the most prestigious marketing effectiveness awards. In the submission, it was noted that the program had a return on marketing investment (RoMI) of 5, but that “…More importantly, some users reported that it saved their life.”

5  Thomason, D. “Don’t Eat the Marshmallow.” NZ Marketing Magazine, March/ April 2014. 
 Link status being determined

7 Cai, D.J., Sarnoff, A.M., Harrison, E.M., Kanady, J.C., Mednick, S.C. (2009) “REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks.” Proc Natl Acad Sci 106: 10130–10134. Full PDF available free here

8  Zabelina, D.L., Robinson, M.D. (2010) “Child’s Play: Facilitating the Originality of Creative Output by a Priming Manipulation.” North Dakota State University; Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. 
 Full PDF available free here

9  Leung, A.K., Maddux, W.W., Galinsky, A.D., Chiu, C. (2008) “Multicultural Experience Enhances Creativity—The When and How.” American Psychologist 63(3): 169–181. Abstract and link to purchase full text here

10 Buehler, R., Griffin, D., Ross, M. (1994) “Exploring the ‘planning fallacy’: Why people underestimate their task completion times.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67: 366-381. Abstract and link to purchase full text here